I just presented two models of ontostats, and showed that the creation of a new ontostat can be interpreted by this phenomenon I called taxiergy (climbing back to the origins of causes); we will now see that this taxiergy along with euteleonomy (improvement of production down-stream) can be displayed throughout the evolution that we understand then as the set up of a super-ontostat.
1. The pluricellular beings :
In this aim, we will try to make a diagram of the food behaviour of living beings (animals and men) since the appearance of the first species ; I ranked them into 5 main types of complexity, which tally with the order of arrival during the evolution :
1 - Fixed beings that feed themselves from what passes in the vicinity, sponges for instance.
2 - Those which displace and graze what they come across, as herbivores.
3 - Predators that chase and catch their preys.
4 - Advanced carnivores that adopt a strategy for hunting.
5 - And at last, the men which raise animals, cultivate the earth and store the product of their harvests for the moment when they need.
For the first category, the animals that feed themselves from what in the vicinity, I schematized on the arrow 1 of the figure 1 their alimentary behaviour by two points : the taking of food, (TF), for the first, and undernutrition state (US), or of fulfil alimentary needs (FAN) for the second. If they are in a rich environment, they feed (FAN state), if not they wilt (US). And their own state, FAN or US, does not act by feedback on the alimentary resources of the environment.
At the following level, it is the matter of animals that move, graze when they are hungry and stop feeding when they are replete. Then I place on the arrow 2, H for hunger at the right of TF, and the arrow in return from H to TF in order to show well that it is the feeling of hunger that trigger the taking of food. And this feeling of hunger is determined by the fall of glycaemia, the rate of sugar in the blood, which is a statistical phenomenon; we see here that the necessary conditions for an ontostat are taking place.
Progressive climbing back of action towards the origin of causal chains among the living beings.
Then, we arrive to the level of animals that chase and catch their preys; among them the hunger provokes the chasing action : I place a C, for chase, on the arrow 3 at the left of TF, because it is necessary to have caught the preys to eat them, and I prolong the arrow in return from H to C. It is an up-stream climb for causality, which I called taxiergy, followed by a teleonomy because we have the right to think that chase will provide to these animals a richer food.
The following stage is that of animals that adopt a strategy for hunting, often in group; I think to already evolved carnivore mammals. They can begin their activity without waiting to be hungry, under the effect of an awakening of the necessity to nourish themselves or of a social behaviour. For them, we have to place on the axis 4, before H, an additional mark, A for awakening, which will be the beginning of the arrow in return towards the chasing activity.
At last, we arrive to men and their much more foresighted behaviour; among them, the awakening or the social behaviour make them begin by ploughing their fields and breeding animals well before they eat their products. We must then shrink back again on this axis (5) and place another point behind, for cultivation and breeding (CB), and prolong the arrow in return until there.
The act of taking food is so mingled in our social behaviour, at least for our western civilisation, that often the difficulty is no longer to nourish ourselves but rather to escape a meal, if health or weight reasons impose that to us; thus we can displace the starting point of the arrow in return towards the left, behind TF (6) : the act of taking food becomes the natural consequence of an entire social behaviour. At the same time, we get the advantage of a more regular, wealthier and better-balanced feeding. Taxiergy (climbing back to the origins of causes) always provokes euteleonomy (improvement of production down-stream).
2 - The Cells.
This process of upturn to the origins of causes is not reserved to the animal evolution alone, we can also observe it during the phylogenetic development of cells before they associate in metazoans, on a much longer period since it stretches during all the Precambrian, on more than 3 billions years :
In search of a energy source, the first cells consumed what they found the more easily workable in the hot primitive soup : ATP (Adenosine TriPhosphate) which formed there extempore. The transformation of ATP in ADP (Adenosine DiPhosphate) supplied, and always supplies all the living beings, with energy needed for the running of the cell.
The consumption increased in reason of the proliferation of cells, the natural production remained low and the other energy sources stay scarce. So the cells must invent a technique for producing ATP. They learned to make it, first by anaerobic way, from glucose which was there in the Haldane soup. That is a taxiergy as those we have seen, but also an euteleonomy, since the making of ATP from glucose gives cells much more autonomy. But, the good things having an end, the sugar became progressively exhausted, the natural production staying well below the needs; so a few clever cells imagined directly fabricating the sugar from the sun light, they invented photosynthesis.
Then the cells, regrouping in organisms, built up an inner medium, the blood, where they took care to maintain constant rates, particularly that of glucose. They initially used biochemical ontostats. Then ontostats linked with behaviour, move, chase -as we saw upper -; more and more important ontostats including and regulating all, until human societies the main concern of which is to provide to everybody a regular supplying in food. Horowitz formulated this law of the climbing back to the origins of causes for metabolic ways, I extend it here to the behaviour of animals, included homo economicus, generalising it and strengthening it since I show it is the result of the superimposition of ontostats.
3 - The explanation of Evolution.
We have shown that the equilibrium of living beings is maintained thanks to the ontostat which appears formed of two waves, one of action and one of information, travelling in opposite directions.
We have just shown that Evolution is done by permanent anticipations, by climbing back to the origins of action chains. That is interpreted on the ontostat by a relative shift of the information wave (green) compared to the action one (black), as we show on the schemes of biological and economic ontostats. When the difference of phase increases between the two waves, the intersection point (2) rises on the action wave (black). That involves an anticipation of the control of action by information and a stretching of the action chain when we go from the biological ontostat to the economic one (figures).
The next page will explain in a deeper way how the functioning of the ontostats reflects the mutual sliding of these two big waves.