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In this page I will show that magnetic field does not agree with any physical reality, that is a pure invention of XIX century physicits, and a useless even baneful complication for it keeps from mentally picturing the phemomenon, necessary step for a well understanding of the underlying physical mechanisms.

At first I will show that magnetic field is useless and phenomena are better explain by what I simply called current effects, in fact the rule of mutual attraction and repulsion of currents uncovered by Ampère :
Two parallel conductors which each carry a current in the same direction will attract one another, while two such conductors which carry currents in an opposite direction will repel each other.

This demonstration, relating to main points of magnetism, will be purely phenomenological and qualitative; in a still to come work we will tackle quantitative questions.

A- Magnetic field is useless.

1- Mutual effects of two linear conductors.
Let's try to determine the mutual action of two carrying current conductors. According to official science, when we want to determine the direction of a force exerted by a magnetic field on a current or on charged particles moving in the field, we must first know the direction of the field. Now for that, we must know the direction of the current that creates this field. Well, but we encounter here a first aberration, since, according to formal definition, the direction of the current is opposed to that of the shifting of electrons in the conductor. That is perhaps a detail of convention, but a counter-intuitive detail which can only divert all those which consider all these questions. Let us continue. We now know the direction of the current in the conductor, we can observe either the rule of the right hand, or that of the corkscrew, to determine the direction of the magnetic field; we find that it circular and is centered on this conductor.
We know the direction of the field now; we should know the direction of the force acting on the other conductor. We will observe another rule, one of the rules of the three fingers of the right hand. - There are some several which gives different assignments to the fingers. But we can also observe the different rule from the left hand -. In that we have chosen, we place the thumb in the direction of the field, the second finger, perpendicular to the plan formed by the index and the thumb, in the direction of the current. And the index gives us the direction of the force. If we made well, we note that if the currents are of the same direction, the conductors attract each other, if they are opposed directions, they repeled. It is formidable, we have found the law of Ampère !!

2- Loops.
We know that loops through which a current circulates are either attracted or repulsed, depending on the polarity of sides they present to each other. But this polarity is defined by the direction in which the current circulates. Thus, if we bring two loops close to each other, the same poles facing each other, currents will circulate in opposite directions and the loops will repulse each other. But it the loops are facing each other with two opposite poles, currents in presence are of the same direction and the loops will attract each other; this is, too, easily explained by the currents effect; it is well known a fact and it does not require at all to resort to the notion of magnetic field.

3- Deviation of charged particles in motion in a coil.
When an electron beam enters and travels into a coil, in the spirals plane, it may be compared to a current. According to the science of the present day, in order to know the force acting on it, we must know the direction of the field in the coil which is given by the little Ampère man or another rule of the right hand. Then we can again apply the rule of the three fingers of the right hand. And we find out that electrons travel through a circular trajectory.
For us, these electrons are under constant influence of the current that circulates in the spirals all around them. In the same direction on one side, while in the opposite direction on the other side. They are therefore attracted on one side and repulsed on the other side, they are going do deviate. And knowing that this dual effect linked to the direction they travel to is permanent and constant in all points – when attraction increases on one side, repulsion decreases on the other side –, the effect will carry on in circular movement. We observe that this circular movement is in opposition to that in the spirals. If the beam direction runs parallel to the coil axis, it is always perpendicular to the current circulation and feels no effect from it. It is always the Ampère rule that applies here again ; there is no need to seek further explanation.

4- Induced electric currents.
Let’s put two coils inside one another. In the smaller a thermal agitation of free electrons exists: they travel in a chaotic way in all directions inside the wire. If we switch on the current into the other one, they will undergo the effect we have described in the preceding paragraph and each one of them will independently make a distinct circular movement based on its initial speed and direction. But as we can see on the diagram, all this movements are in loops and take the opposite direction of the circulation in the large coil. Amongst this curved trajectories, those contouring the shape of the wire may be longer (a and b as opposed to c and d), hence a general motion in this very direction and a current that circulates in the opposite direction of the current we have just switched on in the other coil. This induced current slows down in return the inducing current for the same reason. After a succession of forward and backward travelling of this kind, currents stabilise, thermal agitation and the necessity for an internal neutrality compensate these travelling with a reversed drifting current. When we switch off the current in the external coil, this drifting current carries on for a while before the thermal agitation returns to its initial state without any constraint.

Self induction is due to the same phenomenon, but within one loop only: small loops inside the wire are opposed to the current circulation and slow down its establishment. In practice, in order to determine of the induced current direction, either using Faraday’s formula on electromotive force, e = -dΦ/dt, or Lenz’s on the induced magnetic field opposed to the inducer variation, we ought to call upon arbitrary conventions, such as giving a positive direction to the circuit, and which bear no physical justification. Both methods date back to 1830’s.
For us, knowing the direction of the inducing current, we can deduct straight away the induced current direction. When the inducing current increases, the induced current increases in the opposite direction; when the inducing current decreases, the induced current decreases and does not balance any longer the compensating drifting current which then appears to go against the inductor diminution.. Here again, we can do without Ampere’s observer, or the notion of field or even the notion of magnetic current.

5- Diamagnetism.
Diamagnetism is a general property applied to matter directly caused by the orbital kinetic motion of atomic or molecular electrons. Let’s put a piece of matter thought to be diamagnetic, hanging on a spring and free to move, at the entrance of a powerful coil. Electronic orbits exist in all planes and magnetic effects attract or repulse each other, except in certain specific cases:

If both currents, that of the electron on its orbit and that of the loops of the coil, are of same direction, they attract each other. Then the orbital radius should increase on the effect of this extra centrifugal attraction, but that is impossible: the orbital parameters are fixed and it must have an additional energy for a quantum jump. So electron slows down. Therefore, its attraction is reduced since it is linked to the product currents velocities; the piece of diamagnetic matter will therefore tend to move away from the coil under the effect of the spring.

If we now take an orbit in the reverse direction, I sum up, letting the reader make the complete reasoning : the electron speed increases on its orbit; a repulsion occurs and the piece of matter also moves away from the loop. While other effects cancel each other out, these, in contrary, add to each other; in a broader way, planes of all orbits may be projected onto a plane which is parallel to the loops and results may be averaged in order to calculate the overall effect due to diamagnetism.
In diamagnetism, we usually say that the orbit drifts out in weakest field direction. When the field is constant, in the heart of a coil, it does not move. For us, if the orbit sits inside a spiral and in its plane, the electron is either radially attracted or repulsed in all directions of the plane, and if it feels an induction effect, the orbit does not travel either perpendicularly or parallel to its plane. In order to produce a sensible effect, the plane of the orbit ought to be clear of the planes of spirals, so that attractions and repulsions occur according to the angle with such planes.
It should be noted that when the electrons are independent of atomic constraints, like a beam in a solenoid, the direction of their movement is retrograde compared to that their counterparts in the inductive loops. On the other hand when they are in atomic orbits, these orbits are directed so that the electrons turn in the same direction as those of the inductor.
Lastly, let’s note that these diamagnetism features, and more specifically its indifference to the field direction, tend, one more, to prove the non-existence of the magnetic field.

6- Paramagnetism.
Paramagnetism is due to the inversion of moments of the spin aligning under the effect of the couple generated by a current. For this, the electron rotating around itself, if it is not perfectly within the plane of the loops, is bound by a couple –attracted by a side and repulsed by the other- which slew it round up to it turns in the same direction as the current that attracts it. That induces a short-lived magnetization until the spins take back their former state.

7- Ferromagnetism.
We are talking about orbit moments that align in regions, or domains, even in the absence of current effects. In their presence, such fields spray over a chosen direction, which then becomes stable. They come in such a number that they can be compared to a current revolving into a loop. It is for this reason that we have two magnets either attracting or repulsing each other: if the electronic orbits facing each other revolve in the same direction (opposed poles), they will attract each other. In the opposite direction, they will repulse each other. Close to a coil, the plane of this loop places itself into the plane of the coil loops so that opposite poles, that is to say current travelling in the same direction, face each other.
It is also what explains the deviation of a magnet needle in presence of a current ; electronic orbits take a position so that the electron, in the nearest part from the wire, travels in the same direction than its counterparts of the current. Then, electronic orbits sweep along their atoms and the of the whole magnet needle.

8- The magnetic field does not exist.
Faraday could see, in the position taken by iron filings around a coil or a magnet, magnetic lines of force, genuinely materialising the magnetic field. That idea, that space could be filled up by impalpable but actually real lines of force, deeply impregnates physics up to the point it refuses all other explanation and has even generalized the notion of field. I explain this stubbornness by a certain fascination of mysterious we found again in other domains of physics : a science which explains itself too well does not afford any pedestal to Scientifics.
Yet, at the same time as Faraday, Ampère, reflecting on the same phenomenon, had a foreboding of the existence of electron almost one century ahead of time. Now, and chiefly since the discovery of electrons and following numerous other ignored authors, we are able to explain differently this disposition of iron filings : in fact needles of iron particles orientate so that orbit moments of the iron atoms show a side of their loop in the same current direction than the close-by wire and of course the other side in the opposite way; one being then repulsed while the other one is being attracted. The needle, under the influence of a great number, may only take a specific orientation and this is what appears on these magnetic tracings. Knowing now the atomic and crystal structure of iron particles, and their characteristics, we clearly understand that these deceptive pictures of magnetic tracings only convey an illusion of a magnetic field. The same applies to all representations of coils surrounded by orientated magnet needles. Besides, there is nothing in physics that gives a justification to magnetic field neither to rules or formulas which go with trying to vindicate it. Magnetic field is a useless and baneful "gas-works". Science must get rid of it.

As we have seen, all the phenomena can be explained by what we have called current effects which have been expressed by Ampère :
"Two parallel conductors which each carry a current in the same direction will attract one another, while two such conductors which carry currents in an opposite direction will repel each other."

This simple rule is enough for explaining all the magnetism.

At an early date we will take again this demonstration on quantitative bases; we will find again without surprise the formal expression of laws whithout using magnetic field. Here and now we can assure that will be without difficulties, since it is currently admitted that the field is proportionnal the current that creates it, and that the force is proportionnal to the field. So the force is directly proportionnal to the current. We already know that, which is in physics formula.

In another page, we cast new lighting on the notion of force.
home page previous page next page Denys Lépinard

april 2005