We will see now how an ontostat can be formed from another, and what relations
set up between these two successive loops. That will enable us to enlighten the mechanisms of Evolution.
First level, a commercial firm :
I take this example in economic field because its mechanisms are better known and I largely developed the economic ontostat; but we saw, and will see again, that ontostats work also at every levels of living, which will allow us afterwards to widen our conclusions.
A trading firm is an ontostat ; the dynamic phase is sale and supplying, and statistical phase is formed by information feedbacks of the sales, which are numerous and frequent in a trade shop. These information feedbacks are the more often quantitative but also sometimes qualitative. In a general way, the tradesman works in real time, in this sense that he orders his products as he sell them; however some try to gather them so as to make one order by month and by product, which eases their work and gives them better commercial conditions. In the chosen example, we will suppose a seasonal aspect that imposes a little anticipation : certain orders must be made a few months before the season according to the sales of the previous year, on the same period.
Make-up of an upper level ontostat :
So as to be able to make more important orders and so to have better conditions, a few tradesmen can decide to join together in a buying group. At the beginning, the group stays small, a ten of adherents. By gathering their orders, they will be able effectively to have better commercial conditions, at the satisfaction of the members. But soon, they will feel the limits and they will analyse them as a lack of obvious information due to preponderance of certain adherents, or a lack of coherence caused by the failure of others, from that a weak credibility opposite manufacturers. So they will think they can remedy that by increasing their number and they will recruit. Becoming more and more numerous, they will realize that from a certain threshold -a hundred- the conditions change ; a great-number effect appears : first the group gets its financial autonomy, it can engage a manager, which, with a small staff, will receive information from all the adherents, and the group will get its autonomy of decision. Due to the number any tradesman no longer exists as leader, all are diluted in the masse; and information that goes back is homogenised and statistically reliable. A new ontostat is created at upper level, its informative unity is no longer the purchaser, but the tradesman and its center of decision, the independent manager; the great number of adherents gives it a larger stability, coherence in actions, a better image, thus better quantitative and qualitative relations with manufacturers.
Gains in abstraction :
Also, the quantities of managed products and new information will be such that people will no longer reason in articles, but in families of articles, the sales will no longer be analysed by point of sale but by bargain. The increase of information complexity will cause the gain of a degree of abstraction : the manager will do marketing and no longer trade.
Temporal Hierarchy :
But the most interesting, is the temporal hierarchy that will set up between the two : the tradesman orders again its articles every time it sells them; the group, in order to have better conditions and to prepare bargains, is obliged to anticipate on sales of tradesmen. If, for instance, a seasonal activity exists, the tradesman prepares his season two or three months in advance, sooner he has other cares and the season seems to him far away. But the group must have prepared before the list of seasonal products, the tariffs, the commercial conditions and so, in order to propose them to tradesmen in useful time. It must then set about that a few months before the tradesmen, anticipating their needs.
And in order to become more efficient again, the group can try to widen its acting field; but then it needs to increase its own temporal dimension by acting on the information feedback which must be more complete : for instance, taking advantage of a great number of adherents, and leaving the strict commercial field, it can hold inquiries on trades themselves, on markets and on activity sectors. Collected information is profitable to adherents, to makers with whom they can be negotiated and they can influence making and commercialisation of products. If better informed about sales, the group can also conceive and set into making its own line of products ; it goes up on origin of causes. We see that a more subtle and more complete information feedback allows a better anticipation.
Generalizing, we can say now that the upper level ontostat shifts in time, anticipates with regard to that of lower level. It acts up-stream of the causes. And that is very important : by asserting that the superposition of two ontostats involves the inflating of temporal dimension, I think we touch the key of evolution : it is so that gradually, by anticipation, by upturn to the origins of causes with a more complex behaviour, the living beings succeeded in opening towards the future, in becoming progressively able to project their actions towards this future as the men do now usually.
I name this anticipative effect, joined by an up-stream prolongation of the causal chain and a gain of complexity and abstraction, the all being due to the set up of an upper level ontostat : taxiergy.
1st consequence : improvement of information.
The group acts up-stream of the chain of sales proposing tradesmen products that fit better in their nature and in time to what he expects, thanks to a better feedback of information. And these better targeted and better supplied products will be better sold, will give more satisfaction not only for tradesman but also for his clients ; I name this improvement of production down-stream, euteleonomy. Due to better information up-stream, the causal chain extends qualitatively down-stream. Started in search of quantitative improvements in order to have better commercial conditions, we emerge on qualitative amelioration.
2nd consequence : improvement of dimensions.
The activity conditions of this making and sale chain are fixed by a more complete feedback of information and by an action at the origin. Some other characteristics will be also imposed : particularly dimensions, the number of components, the flow etc. The upper level ontostat fixes conditions of that of lower level and congeals it in its dimensions. We will not surprise to see that ontostats gather and organize in beings the masses of which regroup themselves by level.
The consequences of euteleonomy are still deeper : this improvement does not bear only on commercialized products, but goes further and even extends to evolution of our species. We now observe, at every generation, an increase of height of our contemporaries, that we accord for considering due to a general rising of life level - better feeding of the mother and the child, better hygiene, raising of the school-leaving age, less painful and more late labour etc.-. I interpret that as the result of a better functioning of economics ontostats. Now we saw that biological and economic building is regulated by a superposition of ontostats. From that, the formation and the improvement of a new up-stream ontostat has effects not only on those which are immediately lower -here the trades- but, by consequences in cascades, on the others below, -the men- and to the more intimate of these, their cells and certainly still deeper in living matter ; with, as we have just observed, a feedback action on human nature and on evolution. The ontostat and its power to superpose appears to us as a mechanism of evolution.
We arrive at the heart of our demonstration to which this site is dedicated : the understanding of Evolution and Life. The following page goes still further.