The electric force.
1.1- Interferences and alterations of information.
Up to the present, we have found again a certain number of laws of physics considering the case of a single and insulated particle ; we will now lean on what happens when two particles are in presence. It soon appears that, when they are next, their wave systems interfere and information they receive concerning their new positions turns out to be modified; they will respond by repositioning differently and by making their ways towards other places that those indicated by the whole of the particles of the universe. For only two involved particles the effect of their mutual action will be, by symmetry, to make them deviate or approach; current science speaks then about forces, we will have another point of view. We will start with what we will call from now electromagnetic information - one could say misinformation since the interferences disturb the information received by each particle -. But before, it is necessary for us, within the framework of the Repositioning Theory, to define what is a charged particle and to specify what differentiates two opposite charges.
1.2- Two types of particles.
At this point of our demonstration, we can make the distinction between two possible types of particles. I have defined higher a particle as a double system of concentric waves; however what characterizes a system of waves is initially the phase. Two systems can be identical with the same speed, the same period and the same amplitude, but to be in phase, in opposition of phase or in unspecified shift of phase. On figure 1, I represent two systems in phase between them (1 and 2) and a third in opposition of phase with the first. These waves schematize in section the particles of which we saw higher the diagram in elevation; being understood that these waves are longitudinal waves of compression in 3 dimensions of space.
That being specified, I made the assumption then that the charge could be related to the phase: two systems in phase will have the same charge and two systems in opposition of phase will have two opposite charges. The first reason is that two identical particles except for the charge, two antiparticles, cancel each other when they are in contact - with emission of a radiation which we explained -. We see on figure 1 that it is what would occur if one put in superposition the two lower curves which are in opposition of phase; they would add destructively, and the unit would disappear. If in the same way the two higher curves were superimposed, they would add constructively, with a doubled amplitude; one can thus also associate the charge with the amplitude : a double amplitude is equivalent to a double charge. This is a first step which gives credit, within the framework of this Repositioning theory, with the comparison between the charge and the phase; but we can go further : if two particles approach without being superimposed exactly, that they are in phase or in opposition of phase, they interfere; let us look at figures 2 and 3. On figure 2, the two higher curves are two systems of waves in phase, but shifted by a wavelength. The lower curve schematizes their association : they add destructively in the space between them, and are added, with doubling of the amplitude but conservation of the period, outside.
On figure 3 we have two particles in opposition of phase; they are separated by two wavelengths. They add constructively inside the space which separates them and cancel each other outside:
Remaining faithful to our assumption of a phase wave which guides and anticipates the movement of the particle or, which returns to the same, of a particle which moves towards the side where the frequency of the vibration is the largest, we see that:
two particles in phase, of the same charge, deviate one from the other since the vibrations are cancelled in space between them and add constructively outside (figure 2).
and that two particles in opposition of phase, therefore of opposed charges, move each towards the other for the reciprocal reason (fig. 3).
We can take again our principal points and make some notes:
The charge is marked by the phase, two particles in opposition of charge will be in opposition of phase. That implies that, at least locally, the particles of the same charge vibrate in phase.
The CPT symmetry.
The preservation of CPT symmetry is fundamental in Physics; it is astonishing in that sense that, for a particle, three apparently different magnitudes, the charge C, the parity P and the time T must inverse concurrently. In Repositioning Theory, that may become a veritable school case supporting its validity. Effectively, for our particle model, which we have described as a set of two waves, the inversion of the charge C at the origin of the antiparticle is an inversion of phase. That is done by replacing the maxima by the minima and reciprocally, or, that comes back to the same, by changing simultaneously the signs of the three space axes, that is to say an inversion of the parity P. In this operation the converging wave takes the place of the diverging one and reciprocally, that comes back also to an inversion of the time T.
That would have had to set the scientists on the track since a long while.
The fact for two systems of being in phase or in opposition of phase corresponds in their mutual state when they are superimposed. If they deviate, they find this state each time they are distant of an entire multiple of a wavelength. Thus this assumption imposes that the distance between the particles in interaction is always governed by this constraint, which implies particular positions and trajectories; it is what we saw by studying interference fringes in the atom of hydrogène.
The intensity of the charge is marked by the amplitude, which decrease with the distance from the center. Since they are convergent waves, it is necessary to think of a growth of the amplitude towards the center of charge, undoubtedly thanks to a progressive organization of a lapping or general disorder of the medium.
In order to respect the law of momentum conservation, the losses of information by interferences between in-waves of each particle must be equal and symmetric. That is the case since it is a matter of subtractions of amplitudes.
These first results are completely in conformity with the data of physics and will enable us to go further.
1.3- Information replaces the Force.
It is intentionally that higher I employed the terms, deviates and moves. Indeed, in the Repositioning Theory, one cannot say any more that particles attract each other or push back themselves via blind forces ; the concept of force disappears for the benefit of that of information. And that of field takes very an other aspect, that of a medium traversed by waves which transport information towards and starting from each particle. It should be understood that in fact these are the particles that move following received information. A place is assigned for each particle by the whole of the other particles of the universe, information for that is conveyed by the convergent waves. But when two particles are close one to the other, these convergent waves interfere between them, the information received by a particle is modified and the conditions of its repositioning too : it did not join any more the assigned place but another. In particular, interferences between two particles occurring on the waves located between these particles or outside, in the prolongation of the segment which joint them. Therefore in these zones information is deleted (in the case of destructive interferences ) or amplified (in the case of constructive interferences) and the particles deviate or approach to each other: the repositioning is done towards more information and deviates from the empty zones of information. That could authorize, as I do on various occasions in this text, to personalize the particles; while specifying that this personality is quite thin and limits itself absolutely to the activities of displacement.
Thus, all that one traditionally calls "force" explains, in the theory of universal Repositioning, by a deficit of information in a direction of the universe which modifies the orientation of the next repositioning of the particle. This deficit of information is due to the presence of one or several particles and to interferences between their systems of waves : under certain conditions the waves add destructively and cancel. That causes a loss of information and the particle is repositioned in the opposite direction, that from where it receives information. That can be interpreted within the framework of traditional science like a global loss of mass for this set of particles. It is quite what we observe: more strongly the particles are dependent, more significant is this loss, of mass or of information. In fact one considers that in opposite direction by noting that the quarks, components of the proton, are individually heavier than this proton.
1.4- We can now try a calculation.
We have just seen that our simple initial assumption of convergent waves makes it possible to reproduce and explain the behavior of the charged particles, but so that that does not remain a simple ideal model, it is necessary to try to find the already known values related to these interactions. The figure 5 takes back figure 3 which represents two particles P1 and P2 vibrating in opposition of phase - they are thus of opposite charges - and at a certain distance one of the other - here four wavelengths.
Let us make this very simple calculation. We can write our fundamental equation which measures inertia of a particle :
I0c2 = hν0
I0c2 = hc/λ0
Let's consider now inertia in a given direction Ia or Ib; it is inversely proportional to the length of the waves arriving on this side. Knowing the mass of the electron or its inertia at rest I0, we can calculate the fundamental wavelength ; it is 0,024263 angströms (2,426.10-12 m). It is the wavelength between the particles (figure 5) which enables us to calculate the inertia Ia of the particle in the direction a.
In direction b now, the waves cancel, the frequency νb is null and the wavelength λb infinite. But an infinite length is limited to the radius of the universe, and we can know its order of magnitude (according to current assumptions). However if we express this radius of the universe according to the fundamental wavelength λa which is a natural unit, we obtain a value about 1039. The particle moving to the side of the smallest wavelengths, the ratio of the wavelengths, or the frequencies, enable us to evaluate the tendency of a particle to go on one side. In this case, it is equal to 1039. Side a, the fundamental wave represents the force of gravitation which normally is exerted on all the sides of the particle, but which is cancelled here side b. From this disposition results electromagnetic information. One will not fail to comparing with the already known formula of the relationship between the electromagnetic force and the gravitation force :
k being the constant of Coulomb.
To the following page, we will treat strong and weak, nuclear forces (to be come).
Notice on the Repositioning Theory and Information.
We have just seen that the particles behave according to the information they receive from all the other particles of the universe and that the electromagnetic charge is directly related to the radius of this universe. In the account of this Repositioning Theory, we already met a similar thing : at the page 3.1, we saw that the fine structure constant puts curiously h, the Planck's constant, in relation to the 1/2 logarithm of a number close to that of the particles of the universe. I interpreted this logarithm as the measure of the information of the Universe.
Don't forget that the particles build living matter by assembling themselves, and that an essential element of Evolution and of Life is information. So, would the living be built thanks to the information come from the Universe ? We have, in this site, elements to answer it.